Syllogism Study Notes for IBPS PO and other Bank Exams
Today we’ll discuss about Syllogism. This topic can fetch you marks easily but you need to know the right concepts and types of questions to practice. In banking exams Syllogism questions can be asked in itself. Usually 4-5 questions can be asked from this topic, thus it can fetch you easy marks with right practice.
These questions are usually of the following nature:Two or more statements are given, and one is supposed to find out all the possible conclusions from the given statements.
Note:- 1. Consider statements are always truth that is statement are universal truth. This is main concept of syllogism.2. You must understand their statement and after that, considered on their conclusion.
Statement Type:Type 1: All Books are penType 2: No Book is penType 3: Some Book are penType 4: Some Book are not pen
Type 1: All Books are penType 2: No Books are penType 3: Some Books are penType 4: Some Books are not penType 5: All Books are pen is a possibilitiesType 6: All Books are not pen is a possibilitiesType 7: At least some books are pen
There are three types of conclusion in syllogism-
1. Positive- where we are 100% sure.2. Negative- In this, we are sure that it doesn’t3. Possibility- In this we are not 100% sure but Possible case may occur. In syllogism, a conclusion which is not 100% sure, it’s possibilities can happen i.e we are doubtful in saying it but the possibility may occur
1. Positive conclusion:
Statements: All mad are bad. All bad is crazy. All crazy are mango
Conclusion:All mad are crazy – rightAll bad are mango – rightSome mad are mango – rightSome mango are crazy – rightSome crazy are bad – rightSome bad are mango – rightAll crazy are mad – wrongAll mango are bad – wrongAll bad are mad – wrongHere- In positive sentences Negative and possible conclusions are false.2. Negative conclusion:Statements: All book is notes. All notes is marker. No notes is pen.
Conclusion:No book is pen- (correct): here no notes is pen so no book is pen is right.No Pen is Notes- (correct)3. Possibility conclusion: In syllogism, conclusion which is not 100% sure, it’s possibilities can happen i.e we are doubtful in saying it but possibility may occurs.Statements: Some blue are green. Some grey is blue. All green are white
Conclusions: Some grey is white is a possibility-(right)All green are grey is a possibility-(right)Some Blue is white is a possibility-(wrong) Because it is a definite case. So condition of possibility is wrong.COMPLEMENTARY PAIR: (Either or condition):Conditions of complementary pairs. 1. Some + No:Example: Statements: Some classroom are smart. Some smart are music.
Conclusion: Some classroom are music No music is classroomOrSome classroom are musicNo classroom are music2. All + Some Not:Example: Statements: All Guava are Papaya. Some Papaya are Mango. Some Apple are Mango.
Conclusion:All apple are papayaSome apple are not papayaNote: All apple is papaya + Some papaya are not apple (is not complementary pair).Concept of Only a few and Only:1. Only a few: Means some but not all.Example: Statements: All mango are orange. Only a few orange is banana. some banana are apples.
Conclusions:Some banana is orange. (right)All banana is orange is a possibility. (right)All orange is banana is a possibility. (wrong) This condition is false because only a few orange is banana.2. Only: Only A is B means All B is A. But no other things will be related with B.Example: Statements: Only mango are Orange. Some mango are Fruits. Some Apple are Fruits.
Conclusion:Some fruits are mango.(Correct)Some Apple are mango is a possibility. (correct)Note: A Few, Many, Most, Atleast is considered as ‘some’.