NOTES ON PREPOSITION

[2] PREPOSITION What is a preposition? A preposition is a word used to link nouns, pronouns, or phrases to other words within a sentence. They act to connect the people, objects, time and locations of a sentence. Prepositions are usually short words, and they are normally placed directly in front of nouns. In some cases, you’ll find prepositions in front of gerund verbs. Examples of Prepositions In the following sentences, examples of prepositions have been italicized. As you read, consider how using different prepositions or even different types of prepositions in place of the examples might change the relationship between the rest of the words in the sentence. I prefer to read in the library. He climbed up the ladder to get onto the roof. Please sign your name on the dotted line after you read the contract. Go down the stairs and through the door. He swam across the pool. Take your brother with you. Types of Prepositions There are three types of prepositions, including time prepositions, place prepositions, and direction prepositions. Time prepositions are those such as before, after, during, and until; place prepositions are those indicating position, such as around, between, and against; and direction prepositions are those indicative of direction, such as across, up, and down. Each type of preposition is important. Type of Prepositions Prepositions of Time Basic examples of time prepositions include: at, on, in, before and after. They are used to help indicate when something happened, happens or will happen. It can get a little confusing though, as many different prepositions can be used. Prepositions of time examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. For example: 1. I was born on July 4th, 1982. 2. I was born in 1982. 3. I was born at exactly 2am. 4. I was born two minutes before my twin brother. 5. I was born after the Great War ended. The above makes it seem quite difficult, with five different prepositions used to indicate when something happened. However, there is a set of guidelines that can help decide which preposition to use: For years, months, seasons, centuries and times of day, use the preposition in: 1. I first met John in 1987. 2. It’s always cold in January 3. Easter falls in spring each year. 4. The Second World War occurred in the 20th century. 5. We eat breakfast in the morning. For days, dates and specific holiday days, use the preposition on. 1. We go to school on Mondays, but not on Sunday [3] 2. Christmas is on December 25th. 3. Buy me a present on my birthday. For times, indicators of exception and festivals, use the preposition at: 1. Families often argue at Christmas time. 2. I work faster at night. 3. Her shift finished at 7pm. Before and after should be much easier to understand than the other examples of prepositions of time. Both are used to explain when something happened, happens or will happen, but specifically in relation to another thing. 1. Before I discovered this bar, I used to go straight home after work. 2. We will not leave before 3pm. 3. David comes before Bryan in the line, but after Louise. Other prepositions of time could include: During, about, around, until and throughout. 1. The concert will be staged throughout the month of May. 2. I learned how to ski during the holidays. 3. He usually arrives around 3pm. 4. It was about six in the morning when we made it to bed. 5. The store is open until midnight. Prepositions of Place To confuse matters a bit, the most common prepositions to indicate time – on, at, in – are also the most common prepositions to indicate position. However, the rules are a little clearer as place prepositions are a more rigid concept than time prepositions. Prepositions of place examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. 1. The cat is on the table. 2. The dogs are in the kennel. 3. We can meet at the crossroads. The guidelines can be broken down as follows: On is used when referring to something with a surface: 1. The sculpture hangs on the wall. 2. The images are on the page. 3. The specials are on the menu, which is on the table. In is used when referring to something that is inside or within confined boundaries. This could be anything, even a country: 1. Jim is in France, visiting his aunt in the hospital. 2. The whiskey is in the jar in the fridge. 3. The girls play in the garden. At is used when referring to something at a specific point: 1. The boys are at the entrance at the movie theater. 2. He stood at the bus stop at the corner of Water and High streets. 3. We will meet at the airport. Lots of other prepositions of place, such as under, over, inside, outside, above and below are used in English. There is, however, a lot less confusion as they refer to rigid positions rather than abstract ones. 1. The cat is under the table. [4] 2. Put the sandwich over there. 3. The key is locked inside the car. 4. They stepped outside the house. 5. Major is ranked above corporal. 6. He is waving at you from below the stairs. Prepositions of Movement Prepositions of movement are quite easy to understand as they are less abstract than prepositions of place and time. Essentially, they describe how something or someone moves from one place to another. The most commonly used preposition of movement is to, which usually serves to highlight that there is movement towards a specific destination. Prepositions of movement examples in the following sentences are in bold for easy identification. 1. He has gone on vacation to France. 2. She went to the bowling alley every Friday last summer. 3. I will go to bed when I am tired. 4. They will go to the zoo if they finish their errands. Other more specific prepositions of movement include: through, across, off, down and into. These prepositions can sometimes get mixed up with others. While they are similar, they have individual meanings that add context to the movement. ‘Across’ refers to moving from one side to another. 1. Mike travelled across America on his motorcycle. 2. Rebecca and Judi are swimming across the lake. ‘Through’ refers to moving directly inside something and out the other end. 1. The bullet Ben shot went through the window. 2. The train passes through the tunnel. 3. Into refers to entering or looking inside something. • James went into the room. • They stare into the darkness. Up, over, down, past and around indicate directions of movement: • Jack went up the hill. • Jill came tumbling down after. We will travel over rough terrain on our way to Grandma’s house. • The horse runs around the track all morning. • A car zoomed past a truck on the highway Prepositions with Nouns There are lots of different nouns that carry specific prepositions to consolidate their meaning. These are called dependent prepositions. Again, there isn’t a set rule that says a particular type of noun will take a dependent preposition, although they normally follow the noun. Moreover, there are many possible combinations. Essentially, it’s case of familiarizing yourself with the different possibilities of nouns and dependent prepositions. Examples: 1. He displayed cruelty towards his dog. 2. She had knowledge of physics. 3. The trouble with Jack. 4. 21 is the age at which you are allowed to drink. 5. Bolt made another attempt at the world record. [5] 6. The police held an inquiry into the murder. Prepositions with Verbs Prepositional verbs – the phrasal combinations of verbs and prepositions – are important parts of speech. The prepositions again act as links between the verb and noun or gerund, giving extra meaning to the sentence. The prepositions most commonly used with verbs are: to, for, about, of, in, at and from. The good news is that these will always come after the verb in the sentence. However, it should also be noted that the prepositional verbs can have slightly different meaning compared to the original verb. For example, to relate a story simply means to tell a story, to relate to a story means you identify with it, find some personally meaning in that story. Verb + to: 1. He admitted to the charge. 2. I go to Vancouver on vacation twice a year. 3. William can relate to the character in the play. Verb + for: 1. He must apologize for his actions. 2. We searched for ages before we found the perfect apartment. 3. I provide for my family by working two jobs. Verb + with: 1. I don’t agree with your claim. 2. The lawyer said he will meet with your representatives. 3. They began with a quick warm-up. Verb + of: 1. I dream of a better life. 2. Have you heard of Shakespeare? 3. The bread consists of dough, raisins and a little honey. Verb + in: 1. Does Rick believe in miracles? 2. Fallon lives in New York. 3. The bus accident resulted in my being late to work. Verb + at 1. We arrived at our destination. 2. Ilene excels at singing. 3. Will the baby smile at her mother? Verb + on: 1. We should really concentrate on our studies now. 2. Helen insisted on Brenda’s company. 3. Morris experimented on some canvas. Verb + from: 1. Since turning 80, she suffers from lapses in concentration. 2. Dad retired from the navy in the 1970s. 3. Billy Bob, please refrain from doing that. Prepositions with Adjectives Prepositions can form phrases with adjectives to give further context to the action, emotion or thing the adjective is describing. Like verbs and nouns, adjectives can be followed by: to, about, In, for, with, at and by. [6] 1. I am happily married to David. 2. Ellie is crazy about this movie. 3. Michelle is interested in politics. 4. We are sorry for your loss. 5. Jane will be delighted with her results. 6. Is he still angry at the world? 7. The entire room was astonished by the election results. There can sometimes be a pattern in deciding which prepositions go with adjectives, for example, when adjectives have the same or very similar meaning to each other, they might take the same preposition: Frightened of, afraid of, scared of, terrified of Indeed, when adjectives have opposite meaning they might also take the same preposition: Good at, great at, superb at, wonderful at Bad at, terrible at, woeful at, inept at There are always many exceptions to the above, but it can help that there seems to be some consistency when adjectives have the same meaning or opposite meaning. Nevertheless, perhaps a more general rule is that English speakers simply need to learn which prepositions go with which adjectives, as meaning can change significantly by using a different preposition. 1. I am good at sports means I have some athletic talent. 2. The nurse was good to my mother means she took care of her and was nice, kind, and helpful. 3. I am good with animals means I get along with them and handle them well. 4. Swimming is good for your health. 5. That was good of you to come means you were begin nice and good to visit. 6. My little brother is good inside (his body) means even though you can’t see how he thinks and feels, he is good. Even if his behavior is bad. 7. The blueberry jam will be good on toast. Verbs with fixed Preposition Verb Preposition account for accuse (someone) of adapt to add to adjust to agree on (something) agree to (something) agree with (someone) apologize for (something) apologize to (someone) apply for approve of argue with (someone) [7] argue about (something) arrive at ask for become of believe in belong to blame (someone) for (something) blame (something) on (something) borrow from care about care for catch up with (?) come from comment on communicate with compare with complain about compliment (someone) on congratulate on concentrate on consent to consist of convince (someone) of (something) deal with decide between decide on depend on (dis)approve of dream about, of excuse (someone) for explain (something) to feel like forget about forgive (someone) for get along with get back from get rid of [8] get through with get used to happen to have confidence in have influence over have an opportunity for have patience with have a reason for hear about hear from hear of insist on introduce to invite (someone) to keep for, from keep on laugh about laugh at learn about listen for listen to look at look for look forward to object to participate in pay for plan on prefer to prepare for prevent from provide for provide (someone) with recover from refer to relate to rely on [9] STUDY NOTEs FOR Banking & Other Competitive Exams remind (someone) of search for see about send for separate from show up at speak about spend (money) on stop from substitute for subtract from succeed in suspect (someone) of take advantage of take care of talk about talk over talk to thank (someone) for think about think of throw away vote for wait for warn about waste (money) on wish for work for worry about Prepositions Exercises Exercise 1: The following exercises will help you gain greater understanding about how prepositions work. Choose the best answer to complete each sentence. 1. The bone was _______ the dog. a. About b. For c. After d. Considering [10] STUDY NOTEs FOR Banking & Other Competitive Exams Write us : 2. We are going on vacation _______ August. a. On b. At c. In d. Since 3. Please put the vase ________ the table. a. In b. On c. For d. Over 4. I received a present ________ Janet. a. From b. Of c. By d. About 5. School begins ________ Monday. a. In b. On c. From d. Since Answer: b. The bone was for the dog. Answer: c. We are going on vacation in August. Answer: b. Please put the vase on the table. Answer: a. I received a present from Janet. Answer: b. School begins on Monday. Exercise 2. 1. We walked ……………………… the edge of the desert. as far as up to until 2. It is another three weeks …………………………. the holidays. to until for up to 3. I don’t know how she manages to support such a large family. She has nothing ………………………… ….. her pension. besides except apart from All of the above 4. Are you wearing anything ………………………. your sweater? below under underneath Either under or underneath 5. Do you mind? I was ……………………………. you! in front of in front off before 6. We should arrive ……………………… their place ……………………. time …………………… lunch. at, in, for in, to, at at, for, in at, by, for 7. They live ………………………. a small one bedroom flat ………………….. the third floor. in, in on, on in, on on, in 8. Granny is arriving ………………………. the 3.30 train. in with on 9. Last year, there were a large number of mangoes ……………………. the tree. in at on with 10. His house is ……………………….. the way from Mumbai to Thane. in at by on 11. He met and fell in love with a French girl when he was ………………………. the London School of Economics. in at on 12. A few days after the accident she died ……………………….. the injuries. of with from Either of or from Answers 1. We walked up to / as far as the edge of the desert. 2. It is another three weeks to / until the holidays. 3. I don’t know how she manages to support such a large family. She has nothing besides / except / apart from her pension. 4. Are you wearing anything under / underneath your sweater? 5. Do you mind? I was before / in front of you! 6. We should arrive at their place in time for lunch. 7. They live in a small one bedroom flat on the third floor. 8. Granny is arriving on the 3.30 train. 9. Last year, there were a large number of mangoes on the tree. 10. His house is on the way from Mumbai to Thane. 11. He met and fell in love with a French girl when he was at the London School of Economics. 12. A few days after the accident she died of / from the injuries.



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